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Safe Water Strategy

Research in Ecudaor shows that in practice household chlorination is ineffective for many of the reasons listed as disadvantages in Harriette's answer:

  • source water turbidity
  • source water baseline contamination levels, and
  • in-home contamination

Can you realistically expect (illiterate) rural householders to accurately measure "both source water and household conditions to determine appropriate chlorine levels"? How much will it cost to train and monitor communities to make household chlorination effective and sustainable?

Levy, K. et al, 2014. Household effectiveness vs. laboratory efficacy of point-of-use chlorination. Water research, DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.037

McLaughlin, L.A. et al, 2009. An observational study on the effectiveness of point-of-use chlorination. Journal of environmental health, 71, 8, pp. 48-53. http://www.sph.umich.edu/scr/ecodess/news_docs/McLaughlin_etal2009.pdf