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I reckon there are three approaches to this:
- Installing permanent fixtures such as welding, fencing, mounting on high towers... which will be only as good as the skills as local welders etc. and would still need 24h surveillance of some kind.
- Working with the community to get a sense of ownership and respect, and with authorities for enforcement. This is advocated in many documents, like this WEDC paper and in a related field by WSUP in their guide to reducing vandalism in (admittedly, ruabn) Zambia (full brief, 2-page summary).
- But then others (see section 5.2 in this doc) are arguing that community work doesn't necessarily work, and some advocate ownership by a private individual. Actually in my experience of installing boreholes in peri-urban slums, this is also a good way of reducing vandalism, as long as the person chosen to host the system is accountable in some way...