Urine can be collected from urine diverting toilets or urinals and makes an excellent fertiliser. In order to ensure the urine is safe it should be stored for one month (see WHO guidelines for specific storage and application guidelines). In general, one person produces 1.5 L of urine a day; however, this quantity may vary. Containers should not be made out of metal because it can corrode by high pH. Long term storage of urine is the best way to sanitise urine without the addition of chemicals or mechanical processes. The risk of disease transmission from stored urine is low. Mineral and salt build-up in the tank or in connecting pipes can be manually removed (sometimes with difficulty) or dissolved with a strong acid (24% acetic).
von Münch, E. and Winker, M. (2011). Technology Review of Urine Diversion Components. Overview of Urine Diversion Components Such as Waterless Urinals, Urine Diversion Toilets, Urine Storage and Reuse Systems. Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, DE. Available at: www.susana.org/library
WHO (2006). Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. World Health Organization, Geneva, CH. Available at: www.who.int
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