This is an archival version of the original KnowledgePoint website.

Interactive features have been disabled and some pages and links have been removed.

Visit the new KnowledgePoint website at


Do you know a ‘raised’ latrine that can be flown in during emergencies?


This is a question that I've been asked in the field so I wanted to share it with everyone on KnowledgePoint

1 Answer


In certain circumstances it may be necessary to use a raised latrines during emergencies. There are some viable options that can be flown in. It can take 2-3 days to deliver. Some examples are:

  1. Oxfam - Raised Latrine -

    1. The fexxotoilet and can be ordered here:

    2. Even Products Raised Latrine and Tank Contact for a quote

    3. Aircell Products – Ttanker

This fexxotoilet prototype and other examples have been tested under the Speedkits project also see Emergency Sanitation Project click here.

The advantage of raised latrines is that they can be replicated quickly and implemented at scale given that enough space is available. They are sometimes the only option for flood affected areas or areas where pit digging is difficult or the water table is high in order to keep water from flowing into the pit during heavy rain. It can also be an option during emergencies where the construction of permanent structures is not allowed. As no water is needed for the operation it is also a viable solution for water scarce areas.

Why choose a raised latrine? The raised latrine is an onsite sanitation alternative to pit based latrines, in areas with rocky ground, high water tables or flood affected areas. Depending on the site conditions it can either be built as an autonomous facility entirely above ground or by raising the pit slightly above ground and thereby reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

A note on operation and maintenance O&M requirements depend on the design of the latrine which is used. The storage facility needs desludging and /or replacement of the container at regular intervals and a subsequent sludge management in place. In some designs of raised latrines, part of the pit is below ground level to allow the liquid phase to percolate into the soil through the bottom of the pit and the walls, while microbial action degrades part of the organic fraction.

Raised Latrines above ground usually fill up very quickly and need regular emptying or replacement of the storage facility and subsequent management of the collected sludge. Other general O&M activities include regular cleaning, routine operational tasks like checking of water availability, hygiene items, soap and dry cleansing materials, advise on proper use (if necessary), minor repairs and the monitoring of the filling level of the pit/collection device. As latrines are often misused for solid waste disposal, which might negatively affect the later emptying, special awareness raising measures should be considered.

A note on social considerations

As the name implies the latrine is raised, which gives an increased level of exposure to be seen when going to the toilet, proper siting of the facilities is important as it otherwise might negatively affect the acceptance of the toilets. As with all latrines proper handwashing facilities with soap must be put in place.

The design should ideally be discussed with the community beforehand. It ... (more)